Diabetes mellitus refers to a gaggle of diseases that affect how your body uses blood glucose (glucose) characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Glucose is significant to the body health because it is a crucial source of energy for the cells that structure the muscles and tissues. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) may be a huge burden for human health. Recent investigation shows that there is a close relationship between DM and T cells.
Although diabetes has no cure, the person should take steps to manage diabetes and stay healthy.
Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome
Blood sugar imbalance
Modern life style and food habits
Endocrine function makes hormone that control moods, growth and development, metabolism, organs, and reproduction.
The endocrine gland send those hormones into the bloodstream so they can travel to other parts of the body. The gland regulates what proportion of every hormone is released. This will depend upon levels of hormones already within the blood, or on levels of other substances within the blood, like calcium. Many things affect hormone levels, like stress, infection, and changes within the balance of fluid and minerals in blood.
There are different types of diabetes which based on their causative factors, clinical course, and management.
Type -1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin. It is an auto immune condition. It is common type in children and also called paediatric diabetes.
Type-2 diabetes, the pancreas usually creates some insulin but it is not enough or the body not able to use it. It will cause health complications such as kidneys, nerves, heart and eyes.
Gestational Diabetes, usually causes some form of insulin resistance. It will cause more risk for the baby than mother.
Monogenic Diabetes
Cystic Fibrosis related Diabetes

When the blood sugar level rises above 160 to 180 mg/dL (8.9 to 10.0 mmol/L), glucose spills into the urine. When the extent of glucose within the urine rises even higher, the kidneys excrete additional water to dilute the massive amount of glucose. Because the kidneys will produce excessive urine, people with diabetes may urinate large volume of urine frequently called polyuria. The excessive urination creates abnormal thirst (polydipsia). Because excessive calories are lost within the urine, people may reduce.
Diabetes damages blood vessels, causing the vessels to narrow and thus restricting blood flow. Because blood vessels throughout the body are affected and patients may have many complications of diabetes which include nerve damage, heart attack, etc.
Blurred vision
Decreased endurance during exercise
Increased hunger
Macro vascular complication

The basic management of diabetes is the control and normalization of insulin level  to reduce the development of vascular and neuropathic complications. Diabetes management has several components and involves constant assessment with modification of the treatment plan by healthcare professionals and daily adjustments in therapy by the patient.
The nurses should access the patient’s history, assess physical condition, assess the BMI and visual acuity of patient.
Meal Planning
Laboratory Examination
Continuous glucose monitoring
Weight loss management
Diabetes diet
Endocrinology focuses both on the hormones and therefore the many glands and tissues that produce them. Hormone regulates respiration, metabolism, growth, sensory perception, reproduction and movement. Hormone imbalances are the underlying reason for a good range of medical conditions. 
There are many hormones, like insulin or adrenaline, that everybody shares, but specific hormones can affect men and ladies in several ways. One of the most common reason for hormonal imbalance, is stress — which is unfortunately a stranger to no one.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Diabetic dyslipidemia
Mineralocorticoid deficiency
While genetics plays an important role in the development of diabetes, individuals still have the ability to influence their health to prevent diabetes. There is no known path to prevent type 1 diabetes. 
People should watch their weight and exercise on a regular basis to help reverse prediabetes, and prevent the development of diabetes type 2. Lifestyle and obesity are the biggest diabetes risk factors that can be controllable. Performing physical activity on a regular basis. Getting a plenty of fiber is best management for weight and gut health 
Exercise regularly
Nutrition and diet
Stress management
Supervised Physical activity
Obesity not only raises the risk for type 2 diabetes by causing insulin resistance but also disrupts metabolic health by altering fat tissue hormones, known as adipokines. These hormonal changes can upset the balance of weight, hunger, and how the body uses insulin. To prevent or manage diabetes, addressing obesity through dietary changes, increased physical activity, and behavioral modification is essential. For those with severe obesity and related metabolic issues, medical options like medications or bariatric surgery may be necessary to mitigate diabetes risk or improve diabetes control. This approach to managing obesity is crucial for maintaining overall metabolic health and preventing the onset or progression of diabetes.
According to health experts, the rise of diabetic type 2 case is due to obesity.
Over subsequent 20 years, the amount of obese adults within the country is forecast to soar to 26 million people.
Metabolic Changes in Diabetes
Body Mass Index
Inflammatory response
Metabolomic Biomarker
Sex hormones define the differences between males and females, and therefore the different endocrine environment promoted by estrogens, progesterone, testosterone, and their precursors might influence both human physiology and pathophysiology. With the term Gender we refer, instead, to behaviors, roles, expectations and activities administered by the individual in society.
The female hormones such as progesterone and estrogen, are most documented because which influence on a woman’s reproductive process, from menstruation to pregnancy to menopause and more. Women need working functions such as ovaries, fallopian, and an uterus to get pregnant. Conditions influencing any of these organs can add to female infertility.
In men, the testes which produces a hormone testosterone, that brings about the physical changes that transform into an adult male. Infertility in men can be brought about by various factors and is ordinarily assessed by a semen examination.
Reproductive endocrinology helps to addressing reproductive medicine which balances the hormonal dysfunction in both male & female and it also pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility     
Menstrual abnormality
Micro vascular complications
Blood glucose level changes
Physiology of GNRH and Gonadotropin Secretion
•       Infertility
The pediatric endocrinology is the endocrinology system disease for children such as diabetes and growth disorders. Children who are often hospitalized in medical care units are more likely to possess attention deficit disorders later, and new research finds a possible culprit: a high level of plastic-softening chemicals called phthalates circulating within the blood.
Pediatric diabetes
Genetics and environmental factors
Disorders of Growth Hormone in Childhood
Islet cells

Anterior pituitary dysfunction causes either due to hyper secretion or hypo secretion of pituitary hormones. Brain control of the synthesis and secretion of pituitary AdrenoCorticoTrophic Hormone (ACTH) is mediated by neurohormones released from the hypothalamus at the bottom of the brain and transported by the hypophysial portal vessels to the anterior pituitary gland. The brain-pituitary neuroendocrine system processes information from and enables endocrine responses to external factors, like stress, day length and changes in ambient temperature.
Glucose metabolism
Diabetic coma
Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency Clinical Management
Normal Physiology of Growth Hormone in Adults

Diabetic retinopathy is caused by damage to the blood vessels within the tissue at the rear of the attention (retina). Poorly controlled blood glucose may be a risk factor. Early symptoms are blurriness, floaters, dark areas of vision and difficulty perceiving colours. Blindness can occur. Mild cases could also be treated with careful diabetes management. Advanced cases may require laser treatment or surgery.
Early diabetic retinopathy
Advanced diabetic retinopathy
Treatment for diabetes requires keeping close watch your blood glucose levels (and keeping them at a goal set by your doctor) with a mixture of medicines, exercise, and diet. Some people with diabetes use a computerized pump called an insulin pump that provides insulin on a group basis. Some pills contain quite one sort of diabetes medication.
Vitamins B6 and B12 may help treat diabetic nerve pain if the patient got low levels of those vitamins which is contributing to the nerve pain. But otherwise, there's no clinical proof that taking these vitamins will help.
Oral medicine
Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy
Foot care
Damage to insulin-producing cells in your pancreas from chronic pancreatitis can cause diabetes, a disease that affects the way your body uses blood glucose. Pancreatogenic diabetes may be a sort of secondary diabetes, classified by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and therefore the World Health Organization as type 3c DM (T3cDM).1,2 It refers to diabetes thanks to diseases of the exocrine pancreas: pancreatitis (acute, relapsing, or chronic pancreatitis of any etiology), pancreatectomy/trauma, neoplasia, CF, hemochromatosis, and fibrocalculous pancreatopathy
Pancreatic diabetes
chronic pancreatitis

High blood glucose can damage blood vessels and therefore the nerves that control the patient heart. People with diabetes also are more likely to possess other conditions that raise the danger for heart condition. People with diabetes also are more likely to possess coronary failure. coronary failure may be a serious condition, but it doesn’t mean the guts has stopped beating; it means your heart can’t pump blood well.
Obesity and belly fat
Manage the diabetes ABCs
Maintain healthy lifestyle habits
Clinical Endocrinology is the investigation of endocrine disorders, imaging in endocrinology and therefore the clinical application of molecular endocrinology. Clinical endocrinology is that the study of the system, its function and its diseases or abnormalities. The system refers to those organs within the body which release hormones that regulate many of the body’s functions like the pancreas, the pituitary and therefore the thyroid. Clinical endocrinology may treat any sorts of disorders of metabolism and bridge the negative consequences on things like bone strength and stability thanks to loss of hormones as a traditional effect of aging.
Endocrine diagnosis and treatment
Clinical research on endocrinology
Medications for endocrinology disorder
Researchers have discovered a completely unique and druggable insulin inhibitory receptor, named inceptor. The blocking of inceptor function results in an increased sensitisation of the insulin signaling pathway. Recent approaches in drug discovery have contributed to the event of latest class of therapeutics like Incretin mimetics, Amylin analogues, GIP analogs, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor as targets for potential drugs in diabetes treatment. 
Drug research on Diabetes
Drug/Chemical induced diabetes
Artificial Pancreas

People with diabetes are more likely to possess serious complications from COVID-19.  People with pre-existing medical conditions like diabetes appear to be more susceptible to becoming severely ill with COVID-19. Recent investigation shows that Diabetes Mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are considered to be risk factors for increased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease severity and worse outcomes in the society, including higher mortality. As COVID-19 lacks definitive treatment thus far, patients with Diabetes Mellitus should follow general preventive rules strictly and monitor glucose levels more frequently, engage in physical activity, eat healthily and control other risk factors.
Corona Virus complication
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Communicable disease Prevention and control
Monogenic diabetes is a rare condition performing from mutations ( changes) in a single gene. In discrepancy, the most common types of diabetes  type 1 and type 2 are caused by multiple genes. In most cases, the monogenic diabetes are inherited. Diabetes mellitus is a miscellaneous group of diseases characterized by patient with hyperglycemia. 
Inheritable testing can identify these mutations in certain cases, but the utility of the information they give varies. First, it depends on whether the form of diabetes is monogenic or polygenic.
Both type 1 and type 2 are caused by a combination of inheritable and environmental risk factors. The inheritable mutations that beget diabetes involve the proteins responsible for insulin product or the capability of the body to use insulin, according to the NIDDK. Mutations beget the proteins to serve inaptly.
• Monogeneic Diabetes
• Polygeeneic Diabetes
Recent research have found that diabetes and thyroid disorders tend to coexist in patients. Both conditions involve a dysfunction of the endocrine system. Thyroid problems can have a significant impact on glucose control, and untreated thyroid disorders have a negative impact on diabetes care in patients. But when thyroid function is regularized, this may lead to high blood glucose situations and adverse effects on glycemic control.
• Hypothyroidism
• Hyperthyroidism
• Thyroid dysfunction and Diabetes Mellitus
• Thyroid Surgery
• Thyroid Cancer
•  Thyroxine
Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) is the main source of end-stage kidney illness (ESKD) in created nations, including the Unified States. It is considered a microvascular entanglement and happens in both diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM).
• Dialysis
• Chronic Kidney disease and Management
• Nephrology and Therapeutics
• Glomerular Hyperfiltration
As the medical technology continues to grow, as year by year has seen the that innovation and release of many medical devices to help diabetes patients to monitor their condition.
There are some advanced medical devices in the market which monitor the blood glucose continuously which encompasses both diet and exercise in its suite of tools and gives the patient one-to-one access to experts if they need further assistance.
Ketone monitor
Blood glucose monitor
Continuous glucose monitor
Insulin pumps
Smart insulin pens
Diabetes management app
•      Non-invasive blood sugar monitor

Endocrine surgery procedure is a subspecialty of general a medical procedure that centres transcendently around infections of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands. Endocrine surgery procedure offers one more therapy option in contrast to the regularly utilized chemical administration course. An endocrine specialist has some expertise in the careful treatment of endocrine illnesses. Treating thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid issues through endocrine medical procedure is a multidisciplinary technique that requires the cooperation of endocrinologists and endocrine surgeon.
Thyroid lobectomy

Diabetic foot complications, primarily stemming from neuropathy and poor circulation, can lead to serious issues like ulcers and infections. Loss of sensation from nerve damage makes injury detection difficult, while poor blood flow hampers healing, increasing infection risk. To prevent complications such as skin problems, ulcers, or even gangrene, people with diabetes should maintain good foot hygiene, routinely check their feet, wear proper shoes, and promptly address foot injuries. Effective blood sugar control is also essential to avert these diabetic foot issues.
• Athlete's foot
• Diabetic ulcers
• Calluses
• Corns
• Blisters

Stem cell treatment for diabetes involves using these undifferentiated cells to repair or replace damaged pancreatic beta cells, which are responsible for producing insulin. In type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune response destroys these cells, leading to a lack of insulin and uncontrolled blood sugar levels. Research into stem cell therapy aims to restore insulin production, potentially offering a cure or significantly improving disease management. While still in experimental stages, several clinical trials have shown promise with some patients experiencing periods of reduced insulin dependency. However, challenges such as ensuring long-term survival of the transplanted cells and preventing immune rejection remain. If these can be overcome, stem cell therapy could revolutionize diabetes treatment.
• Somatic cell Therapy
• Type 1 Diabetes Beta Cells
• Cord blood stem cells
• Stem Cell Educator
• Thymic regulatory T cells
Steroid hormones like estrogen and testosterone orchestrate key bodily functions by passing through cell membranes and binding to specific receptors inside cells. This union triggers changes in gene expression, influencing processes such as metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. The precision of this hormone-receptor interaction is vital for maintaining health, with imbalances leading to conditions like Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease. Research into these pathways is critical for crafting therapies for hormone-related disorders.
• Mineralocorticoid receptor
• Nuclear hormone receptors
• Hydroxysteroids
• Ketosteroids
• Hormone Responsive Elements