O.V. Kaminskyi, National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the NAMS of Ukraine, Ukraine
Title : Noncancerous parathyroid disease in the chnpp accident survivors
Objective: Investigation of parathyroid disease incidence in subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the ChNPP accident.
Methods and results: The generally accepted clinical, instrumental, laboratory methods and hormone assay. More than 2, 000 survivors of the ChNPP accident were enrolled.
Parathyroid (PTh) disease onset in the long term (over 20-30 years) upon radiation exposure is a new aspect of impact of ionizing radiation in human. Our research has shown that 23-35 years after irradiation the PTh hyperplasia was revealed among irradiated individuals having got neither primary nor tertiary hyperparathyroidism, namely in 28.8 % of cases in the ChNPP accident clean-up workers, in 71.4 % of evacuees from the 30-kilometer exclusion zone, in 41.7 % of residents of radioactively contaminated areas, in 33.3 % of persons irradiated in utero. The revealed incidence in each subgroup of study subjects mentioned above was higher than in non-irradiated residents of Kyiv city and Kyiv region (24.3 %, control group). PTh hyperplasia was revealed in 58 % of children living in radioactively contaminated areas.
Conclusion: Thus, there is a high prevalence of PTh hyperplasia among population of Ukraine, which was exposed to ionizing radiation in different doses (including the low dose range) from tropical isotopes of iodine, cesium and strontium. Such contingents primarily include the evacuees from 30-km exclusion zone (71.4 %; ?2yates’ = 24.1; ? = 0), who had received a significant combined short-term isotope irradiation and external gamma exposure. Residents of radioactively contaminated areas are the another critical group of survivors, in whom a significant incidence of hyperplasia was detected. They daily for a long time (years–decades) experience the isotopic contamination with cesium and strontium (air, food), and demonstrate the statistically significant (41.7 %; ?2yates’ = 6.45; ? = 0.009) increase in the incidence of PTh hyperplasia.